Welche Aufgaben haben eigentlich die einzelnen Positionen einer Offense und. American Football (englisch für „Amerikanischer Fußball“), oder auch kurz Football, ist eine aus den Vereinigten Staaten stammende Ballsportart und die. Jan. American Football ist ein komplizierter Sport, mit klaren Zuteilungen für jeden Spieler: Jeder hat seine Aufgaben, jeder ist für bestimmte. Was ist das überhaupt? Popular games cast light on moral decisions in real life, says religion scholar, by Forney, Craig A. Februar findet der Ausnahme bildet ein sogenannter Palpably Unfair Act offenkundig unfaires Vorgehen , bei dem es dem Referee, nach Beratung mit seinen Kollegen, erlaubt ist, auch einen Touchdown oder anderen Score als Strafe zu verhängen. Die kostenlose ran App. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Illegales Benutzen des Helmes, indem sich ein Spieler aus vollem Lauf mit geradem Körper und gesenktem Kopf, also wie ein Speer "spear" auf einen Gegenspieler wirft. Spielzug, bei welchem der Quarterback nach dem Snap sich nach vorne fallen lässt, um kurze Distanzen zu überbrücken. Januar um Der Spielzug endet mit einem Tackle, dem Verlassen des Spielfeldes oder, falls es der Ballträger bis in die gegnerische Endzone schafft, mit einem Touchdown. Aber auch jeder andere fangberechtigte Spieler der Offense kann Ballträger sein. Welche Art von Informationsmaterial ist erhältlich? Er ist für die Betreuung der Mannschaft zuständig und überwacht sowohl das Training als auch alle Entscheidungen in einem Spiel. Noch schlimmer ist es jedoch, wenn es im Super Bowl ist.
Amarican football - has leftNHL "Eine riesige Ehre": Nachteilig sind die hohen athletischen Anforderungen, die an die Linemen gestellt werden, da der Passgeber für die Defensespieler schneller erreichbar ist. Pro Spielzug darf nur ein Vorwärtspass geworfen werden. Erstens kann es die Offensive Line durcheinander bringen, weil die geplanten Blockschemata evtl. Wer hat die Nase vorn?
This change effectively made American football a separate sport from rugby, and the resulting five-yard lines added to the field to measure distances made it resemble a gridiron in appearance.
Other major rule changes included a reduction of the field size to by Despite these new rules, football remained a violent sport.
Dangerous mass-formations, which involved interlocking interference, like the flying wedge resulted in serious injuries and deaths.
The legal forward pass was introduced in , although its impact was initially limited due to the restrictions placed on its use. Other rule changes introduced that year included the reduction of the time of play from 70 to 60 minutes and the increase of the distance required for a first down from 5 to 10 yards 9.
To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football.
This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money.
Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not outright prohibited.
Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school.
The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.
The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level , but the upstart NFL received a boost to its legitimacy in when an NFL team, the Pottsville Maroons , defeated a team of Notre Dame all-stars in an exhibition game.
The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.
This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids.
The bidding war for players ended in , when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.
That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.
This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.
Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.
The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown.
The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball. An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.
Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense. Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays.
Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.
The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays.
Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations.
The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.
Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.
Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.
Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.
The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.
Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays.
The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays. Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.
The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.
The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground. Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.
Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game.
There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.
A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team. A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play.
If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.
In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion  and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.
No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.
A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.
Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.
Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines. White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone.
Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0. Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4.
A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.
Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards. Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines.
The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright.
The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.
The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.
Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.
Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.
An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official.
If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.
The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.
A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage, and only one forward pass can be attempted per down.
The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs. If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs.
If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense. In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.
There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.
The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.
On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.
Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.
The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.
If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.
Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.
Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. Houston Texans 7 Indianapolis Colts Tennessee Titans 17 Indianapolis Colts Baltimore Ravens 26 Cleveland Browns Denver Broncos 9 Los Angeles Chargers Kansas City Chiefs 35 Oakland Raiders 3.
Los Angeles Rams 48 San Francisco 49ers Minnesota Vikings 10 Chicago Bears Pittsburgh Steelers 16 Cincinnati Bengals Seattle Seahawks 27 Arizona Cardinals Washington Redskins 0 Philadelphia Eagles Buffalo Bills 42 Miami Dolphins Green Bay Packers 0 Detroit Lions Houston Texans 20 Jacksonville Jaguars 3.
New Orleans Saints 14 Carolina Panthers New York Giants 35 Dallas Cowboys Tampa Bay Buccaneers 32 Atlanta Falcons Oakland Raiders 27 Denver Broncos Seattle Seahawks 38 Kansas City Chiefs New Orleans Saints 31 Pittsburgh Steelers Arizona Cardinals 9 Los Angeles Rams San Francisco 49ers 9 Chicago Bears Carolina Panthers 10 Atlanta Falcons Cleveland Browns 26 Cincinnati Bengals Dallas Cowboys 27 Tampa Bay Buccaneers Detroit Lions 9 Minnesota Vikings Indianapolis Colts 28 New York Giants Miami Dolphins 7 Jacksonville Jaguars New England Patriots 24 Buffalo Bills Philadelphia Eagles 32 Houston Texans Los Angeles Chargers 10 Baltimore Ravens Tennessee Titans 25 Washington Redskins Carolina Panthers 9 New Orleans Saints Los Angeles Rams 23 Philadelphia Eagles Pittsburgh Steelers 17 New England Patriots San Francisco 49ers 26 Seattle Seahawks Atlanta Falcons 40 Arizona Cardinals Baltimore Ravens 20 Tampa Bay Buccaneers Buffalo Bills 14 Detroit Lions Chicago Bears 24 Green Bay Packers Cincinnati Bengals 30 Oakland Raiders Indianapolis Colts 23 Dallas Cowboys 0.
Jacksonville Jaguars 13 Washington Redskins Minnesota Vikings 41 Miami Dolphins New York Giants 0 Tennessee Titans Denver Broncos 16 Cleveland Browns New York Jets 22 Houston Texans Seattle Seahawks 21 Minnesota Vikings 7.
Chicago Bears 15 Los Angeles Rams 6. Arizona Cardinals 3 Detroit Lions Dallas Cowboys 29 Philadelphia Eagles Oakland Raiders 24 Pittsburgh Steelers Los Angeles Chargers 26 Cincinnati Bengals San Francisco 49ers 20 Denver Broncos Buffalo Bills 23 New York Jets Cleveland Browns 26 Carolina Panthers Green Bay Packers 34 Atlanta Falcons Houston Texans 21 Indianapolis Colts Kansas City Chiefs 27 Baltimore Ravens Miami Dolphins 34 New England Patriots Washington Redskins 16 New York Giants Tennessee Titans 30 Jacksonville Jaguars 9.
Philadelphia Eagles 28 Washington Redskins Pittsburgh Steelers 30 Los Angeles Chargers New England Patriots 24 Minnesota Vikings Seattle Seahawks 43 San Francisco 49ers Oakland Raiders 33 Kansas City Chiefs Tennessee Titans 26 New York Jets Atlanta Falcons 16 Baltimore Ravens Cincinnati Bengals 10 Denver Broncos Detroit Lions 16 Los Angeles Rams Green Bay Packers 17 Arizona Cardinals Houston Texans 29 Cleveland Browns Jacksonville Jaguars 6 Indianapolis Colts 0.
Miami Dolphins 21 Buffalo Bills New York Giants 30 Chicago Bears Tampa Bay Buccaneers 24 Carolina Panthers Dallas Cowboys 13 New Orleans Saints Houston Texans 34 Tennessee Titans Minnesota Vikings 24 Green Bay Packers Denver Broncos 24 Pittsburgh Steelers Indianapolis Colts 27 Miami Dolphins Los Angeles Chargers 45 Arizona Cardinals Baltimore Ravens 34 Oakland Raiders Retrieved April 7, The Memphis Commercial Appeal.
Retrieved September 14, WMC Action News 5. Retrieved October 2, Alliance of American Football unveils logos of four pro teams that will debut in ".
Retrieved September 21, Retrieved November 8, Retrieved November 5, Retrieved March 21, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved November 29, Alliance of American Football.
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