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Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, and some other European countries the sport is known simply as hockey ; the name "ice hockey" is used in places where "hockey" more often refers to the more popular field hockey , such as countries in South America , Asia , Africa , Australasia , and some European countries including the United Kingdom , Ireland and the Netherlands.
Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere. These games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as " shinny " and "ice polo".
The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal , where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, Some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day.
Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the s, and professional ice hockey originated around The Stanley Cup , emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and later became the championship trophy of the NHL.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries the " Big Six " predominate: In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships , of medals have been awarded to the six nations.
Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since In England, field hockey has been historically referred to as simply "hockey" and it is in historical references to field hockey that the name "hockey" first appears.
A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage. According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc to poke, punch or deliver a blow.
Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling , the closely related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey including " bandy ball ", played in England.
It was played with a wooden curved bat called a colf or kolf , a wooden or leather ball and two poles or nearby landmarks , with the objective to hit the chosen point using the least number of strokes.
A similar game knattleikr had been played for a thousand years or more by the Scandinavian peoples, as documented in the Icelandic sagas.
Polo has been referred to as "hockey on horseback". I must now describe to you the game of Hockey; we have each a stick turning up at the end.
We get a bung. There are two sides one of them knocks one way and the other side the other way. If any one of the sides makes the bung reach that end of the churchyard it is victorious.
British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter.
To while away their boredom and to stay in shape they [European colonial soldiers in North America] would play on the frozen rivers and lakes. The British [English] played bandy, the Scots played shinty and golf, the Irish, hurling, while the Dutch soldiers probably pursued ken jaegen.
Curiosity led some to try lacrosse. Each group learned the game from the others. The most daring ventured to play on skates. All these contributions nourished a game that was evolving.
Hockey way invented by all these people, all these cultures, all these individuals. Hockey is the conclusion of all these beginnings.
In , John Franklin wrote "The game of hockey played on the ice was the morning sport" on Great Bear Lake during one of his Arctic expeditions.
A mids watercolour portrays New Brunswick lieutenant-governor Archibald Campbell and his family with British soldiers on skates playing a stick-on-ice sport.
In another British Army officer in Kingston, Ontario wrote, "Began to skate this year, improved quickly and had great fun at hockey on the ice. Rand also describes a game played probably after European contact with hurleys , known as wolchamaadijik.
Early 19th-century paintings depict shinney or "shinny" , an early form of hockey with no standard rules which was played in Nova Scotia.
The number of players was often large. To this day, shinney derived from "shinty" is a popular Canadian  term for an informal type of hockey , either ice or street hockey.
Thomas Chandler Haliburton , in The Attache: Instead of a ball or bung, the game featured a "flat circular piece of wood"  to keep it in the rink and to protect spectators.
The goal posts were 8 feet 2. The McGill team won the tournament and was awarded the "Carnival Cup". The positions were now named: Moritz, Switzerland; however, this is undocumented.
The match was won by the Oxford Dark Blues, 6—0;   the first photographs and team lists date from Since , considered the th anniversary of the rivalry, teams of the two colleges play for the Carr-Harris Cup.
In , the Governor General of Canada , Lord Stanley of Preston whose sons and daughter were hockey enthusiasts , first attended the Montreal Winter Carnival tournament and was impressed with the game.
In , realizing that there was no recognition for the best team in Canada although a number of leagues had championship trophies , he purchased a silver bowl for use as a trophy.
By , there were almost a hundred teams in Montreal alone; in addition, there were leagues throughout Canada. William Fairbrother , from Ontario , Canada is credited with inventing the ice hockey net in the s.
Left and right defence began to replace the point and cover-point positions in the OHA in In the United States, "ice polo", played with a ball rather than a puck, was popular during this period; however, by Yale University and Johns Hopkins University held their first ice hockey matches.
Soon afterwards, Chace put together a team of men from Yale, Brown , and Harvard , and toured across Canada as captain of this team. Yale, led by captain Chace, beat Hopkins, 2—1.
The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace was founded in to govern international competition, and the first European championship was won by Great Britain in The sport grew further in Europe in the s, after ice hockey became an Olympic sport.
Many bandy players switched to hockey so as to be able to compete in the Olympics. As the popularity of ice hockey as a spectator sport grew, earlier rinks were replaced by larger rinks.
The Stannus Street Rink in Windsor, Nova Scotia built in may be the oldest still in existence; however, it is no longer used for hockey. The Aberdeen Pavilion built in in Ottawa was used for hockey in and is the oldest existing facility that has hosted Stanley Cup games.
It has been modified extensively several times in its history and is used today by Northeastern University for hockey and other sports. Professional hockey has existed since the early 20th century.
By , the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League was the first to employ professionals. The IPHL, cut off from its largest source of players, disbanded in By then, several professional hockey leagues were operating in Canada with leagues in Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec.
The NHA would further refine the rules: After re-organizing as the National Hockey League in , the league expanded into the United States, starting with the Boston Bruins in Professional hockey leagues developed later in Europe, but amateur leagues leading to national championships were in place.
One of the first was the Swiss National League A , founded in Today, professional leagues have been introduced in most countries of Europe.
While the general characteristics of the game stay the same wherever it is played, the exact rules depend on the particular code of play being used.
Ice hockey is played on a hockey rink. During normal play, there are six players per side on the ice at any time, one of them being the goaltender, each of whom is on ice skates.
The players use their sticks to pass or shoot the puck. Within certain restrictions, players may redirect the puck with any part of their body.
Players may not hold the puck in their hand and are prohibited from using their hands to pass the puck to their teammates, unless they are in the defensive zone.
Players may not intentionally bat the puck into the net with their hands. Hockey is an " off-side " game, meaning that forward passes are allowed, unlike in rugby.
Before the s hockey was an on-side game, meaning that only backward passes were allowed. Those rules favoured individual stick-handling as a key means of driving the puck forward.
With the arrival of offside rules, the forward pass transformed hockey into a truly team sport, where individual performance diminished in importance relative to team play, which could now be coordinated over the entire surface of the ice as opposed to merely rearward players.
The six players on each team are typically divided into three forwards, two defencemen, and a goaltender. The term skaters is typically used to describe all players who are not goaltenders.
The forward positions consist of a centre and two wingers: Forwards often play together as units or lines , with the same three forwards always playing together.
The defencemen usually stay together as a pair generally divided between left and right. Left and right side wingers or defencemen are generally positioned as such, based on the side on which they carry their stick.
A substitution of an entire unit at once is called a line change. Teams typically employ alternate sets of forward lines and defensive pairings when short-handed or on a power play.
The goaltender stands in a, usually blue, semi-circle called the crease in the defensive zone keeping pucks from going in.
Substitutions are permitted at any time during the game, although during a stoppage of play the home team is permitted the final change.
When players are substituted during play, it is called changing on the fly. A new NHL rule added in the —06 season prevents a team from changing their line after they ice the puck.
The boards surrounding the ice help keep the puck in play and they can also be used as tools to play the puck. Players are permitted to " bodycheck " opponents into the boards as a means of stopping progress.
The referees, linesmen and the outsides of the goal are "in play" and do not cause a stoppage of the game when the puck or players are influenced by either bouncing or colliding into them.
Play can be stopped if the goal is knocked out of position. Play often proceeds for minutes without interruption.
When play is stopped, it is restarted with a " faceoff ". Two players "face" each other and an official drops the puck to the ice, where the two players attempt to gain control of the puck.
Markings circles on the ice indicate the locations for the faceoff and guide the positioning of players. The three major rules of play in ice hockey that limit the movement of the puck: The puck goes "out of play" whenever it goes past the perimeter of the ice rink onto the player benches, over the "glass," or onto the protective netting above the glass and a stoppage of play is called by the officials using whistles.
It also does not matter if the puck comes back onto the ice surface from those areas as the puck is considered dead once it leaves the perimeter of the rink.
Under IIHF rules, each team may carry a maximum of 20 players and two goaltenders on their roster. NHL rules restrict the total number of players per game to 18, plus two goaltenders.
In the NHL, the players are usually divided into four lines of three forwards, and into three pairs of defencemen. On occasion, teams may elect to substitute an extra defenceman for a forward.
The seventh defenceman may play as a substitute defenceman, spend the game on the bench, or if a team chooses to play four lines then this seventh defenceman may see ice-time on the fourth line as a forward.
A professional game consists of three "periods" of twenty minutes, the clock running only when the puck is in play.
The teams change ends after each period of play, including overtime. Various procedures are used if a tie occurs. In tournament play, as well as in the NHL playoffs, North Americans favour sudden death overtime , in which the teams continue to play twenty-minute periods until a goal is scored.
Up until the — season regular season NHL games were settled with a single five-minute sudden death period with five players plus a goalie per side, with both teams awarded one point in the standings in the event of a tie.
With a goal, the winning team would be awarded two points and the losing team none just as if they had lost in regulation. From — until —04, the National Hockey League decided ties by playing a single five-minute sudden death overtime period with each team having four skaters per side plus the goalie to "open up" the game.
In the event of a tie, each team would still receive one point in the standings but in the event of a victory the winning team would be awarded two points in the standings and the losing team one point.
The idea was to discourage teams from playing for a tie, since previously some teams might have preferred a tie and 1 point to risking a loss and zero points.
The only exception to this rule is if a team opts to pull their goalie in exchange for an extra skater during overtime and is subsequently scored upon an "empty net" goal , in which case the losing team receives no points for the overtime loss.
Since the —16 season, the single five-minute sudden death overtime session involves three skaters on each side. Since three skaters must always be on the ice in an NHL game, the consequences of penalties are slightly different from those during regulation play.
If a team is on a powerplay when overtime begins, that team will play with more than three skaters usually four, very rarely five until the expiration of the penalty.
Any penalty during overtime that would result in a team losing a skater during regulation instead causes the non-penalized team to add a skater.
This goes until the next stoppage of play. International play and several North American professional leagues, including the NHL in the regular season , now use an overtime period identical to that from 99—00 — 03—04 followed by a penalty shootout.
If the score remains tied after an extra overtime period, the subsequent shootout consists of three players from each team taking penalty shots.
After these six total shots, the team with the most goals is awarded the victory. If the score is still tied, the shootout then proceeds to a sudden death format.
Regardless of the number of goals scored during the shootout by either team, the final score recorded will award the winning team one more goal than the score at the end of regulation time.
In the NHL if a game is decided in overtime or by a shootout the winning team is awarded two points in the standings and the losing team is awarded one point.
Ties no longer occur in the NHL. The overtime mode for the NHL playoffs differ from the regular season. In the playoffs there are no shootouts nor ties.
If a game is tied after regulation an additional 20 minutes of 5 on 5 sudden death overtime will be added. In case of a tied game after the overtime, multiple minute overtimes will be played until a team scores, which wins the match.
In ice hockey, infractions of the rules lead to play stoppages whereby the play is restarted at a face off. Some infractions result in the imposition of a penalty to a player or team.
In the simplest case, the offending player is sent to the " penalty box " and their team has to play with one less player on the ice for a designated amount of time.
Minor penalties last for two minutes, major penalties last for five minutes, and a double minor penalty is two consecutive penalties of two minutes duration.
A single minor penalty may be extended by a further two minutes for causing visible injury to the victimized player. This is usually when blood is drawn during high sticking.
The sport migrated south to the United States during the s, and games are known to have taken place there between Johns Hopkins and Yale Universities in Ice hockey spread to Europe around the turn of the century, and the first Olympic Games to include ice hockey for men were the Antwerp Summer Games.
Unsurprisingly, Canada dominated the first tournaments. However, in , and until its dissolution, the Soviet Union took over and became the number one team.
Any team performing under the tutelage of the greatest ice hockey player the game has ever known understands that the pressure is on to win gold.
Such was the prospect facing the Canada ice hockey team at the Winter Olympics at Salt Lake City with Wayne Gretzky, or the Great One as he was affectionately known, their executive director.
In the final they met host nation USA The game is popular among both males and females in many parts of the world, particularly in Europe , Asia , Australia , New Zealand , South Africa , and Argentina.
In most countries, the game is played between single-sex sides, although they can be mixed-sex. Modern field hockey sticks are constructed of a composite of wood, glass fibre or carbon fibre sometimes both and are J-shaped, with a curved hook at the playing end, a flat surface on the playing side and a curved surface on the rear side.
All sticks are right-handed — left-handed sticks are not permitted. While field hockey in its current form appeared in midth century England , primarily in schools, it was not until the first half of the 19th century that it became firmly established.
The first club was created in at Blackheath in south-east London. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan. Ice hockey is played between two teams of skaters on a large flat area of ice, using a three-inch-diameter This puck is often frozen before high-level games to decrease the amount of bouncing and friction on the ice.
The game is played all over North America, Europe and to varying extents in many other countries around the world. Ice hockey is the national sport of Latvia  and the national winter sport of Canada.
The NHL rules are slightly different from those used in Olympic ice hockey over many categories. International ice hockey rules were adopted from Canadian rules in the early s.
The contemporary sport developed in Canada from European and native influences. These included various stick and ball games similar to field hockey, bandy and other games where two teams push a ball or object back and forth with sticks.
These were played outdoors on ice under the name "hockey" in England throughout the 19th century, and even earlier under various other names.
The first organized and recorded game of ice hockey was played indoors in Montreal, Quebec , Canada, on March 3, , and featured several McGill University students.
Ice hockey sticks are long L-shaped sticks made of wood, graphite , or composites with a blade at the bottom that can lie flat on the playing surface when the stick is held upright and can legally curve either way, for left - or right-handed players.
Ice sledge hockey or para ice hockey is a form of ice hockey designed for players with physical disabilities affecting their lower bodies.
Players sit on double-bladed sledges and use two sticks; each stick has a blade at one end and small picks at the other. Players use the sticks to pass, stickhandle and shoot the puck, and to propel their sledges.
The rules are very similar to IIHF ice hockey rules. Canada is a recognized international leader in the development of sledge hockey, and much of the equipment for the sport was first developed there, such as sledge hockey sticks laminated with fiberglass , as well as aluminum shafts with hand-carved insert blades and special aluminum sledges with regulation skate blades.
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