The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.
The record high temperature was The city experiences four seasons. The winter is mild and sub-dry, and the summer is moderately warm and rainy.
Autumn and spring are transitional seasons. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city.
Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1, millimetres On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean.
In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon.
Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day, similar to Melbourne, Australia. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold.
When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures.
This phenomenon happens usually in the winter. In , the city had 2,, opposite-sex couples and 7, same-sex couples.
Since to , approximately 2. The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city. Even today, Italians are grouped in neighborhoods like Bixiga, Bras and Mooca to promote celebrations and festivals.
Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day. The Portuguese community is also large, and it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal.
Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans.
Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans.
Of the immigrants who arrived there between and , Between and , The main reported ancestries were: The city once attracted numerous immigrants from all over Brazil and even from foreign countries, due to a strong economy and for being the hub of most Brazilian companies;  however, since , wealthy Sao Paulo residents have been fleeing to cities including the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area ,  Boston , and Miami , secondary to a surge in Brazilian violence and instability.
This migration grew enormously in the s and remained huge in the next decades. The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration.
Buddhism and Eastern religions also have relevance among the beliefs most practiced by Paulistanos. It is estimated that there are more than one hundred thousand Buddhist followers and Hindu.
Also considerable are Judaism , Mormonism and Afro-Brazilian religions. Others 1, had no religion 9. The archive of the archdiocese, called the Metropolitan Archival Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva, located in the Ipiranga neighborhood, holds one of the most important documentary heritage in Brazil.
According to the Global Homicide Survey released by the United Nations , in the period between and the homicide rate dropped from Crime rates , such as homicide , have been steadily declining for 8 years.
Among the capitals, it was the fourth less violent, registering, in , homicide rates higher than those of Boa Vista , Palmas and Natal. During two World Wars and the Great Depression , coffee exports from other regions of the state were critically affected.
The primary language is Portuguese. From on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal , Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools.
The original Tupi Austral language subsequently lost ground to Portuguese , and eventually became extinct. Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language.
The local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa , a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent.
Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese.
Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages. The Legislative Power is represented by the Municipal Chamber, composed of 55 aldermen elected to four-year posts in compliance with the provisions of Article 29 of the Constitution, which governs a minimum number of 42 and a maximum of 55 for municipalities with more than five million inhabitants.
It is up to the house to draft and vote fundamental laws to the administration and to the Executive, especially the municipal budget well-known like Law of Budgetary Guidelines.
The actual performance and representativeness of such councils, however, are sometimes questioned. The following municipal councils are active: These zones are identified by colors in the street signs.
According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4. The city has 1, bank branches and 70 shopping malls. The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations.
Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro. Opened in , JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc.
Large hotel chains whose target audience is the corporate traveller are in the city. The annual March For Jesus is a large gathering of Christians from Protestant churches throughout Brazil, with Sao Paulo police reporting participation in the range of , in The city has a nightlife that is considered one of the best in the country.
There are cinemas, theaters, museums and cultural centers. The cuisine of the region is a tourist attraction. The city has 62 cuisines across 12, restaurants.
The new job vacancies contributed to attract a significant number of immigrants mainly from Italy  and migrants, especially from the Northeastern states.
The rapid population growth has brought many problems for the city. The water loss is However, between 11 and Sixty percent of the sewage collected is treated.
The fixed telephony network is still precarious, with coverage of The original nuclei of the city are vertical, characterized by the presence of commercial buildings and services; And the peripheries are generally developed with two to four-story buildings — although such generalization certainly meets with exceptions in the fabric of the metropolis.
Its tallest buildings rarely reach forty stories, and the average residential building is twenty. Such tissue heterogeneity, however, is not as predictable as the generic model can make us imagine.
Some central regions of the city began to concentrate indigents, drug trafficking , street vending and prostitution , which encouraged the creation of new socio-economic centralities.
The characterization of each region of the city also underwent several changes throughout the 20th century. With the relocation of industries to other cities or states, several areas that once housed factory sheds have become commercial or even residential areas.
These three periods are characterized by the typical constructive processes of their times. However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl.
The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable. Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes.
The Plan of the Avenues was implemented during the s and sought to build large avenues connecting the city center with the outskirts.
This plan included renewing the commercial city center, leading to real estate speculation and gentrification of several downtown neighborhoods.
The plan also led to the expansion of bus services, which would soon replace the trolley as the preliminary transportation system.
Peripheral neighborhoods were usually unregulated and consisted mainly of self-built single-family houses. The main result was zoning laws.
It lasted until when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan. That zoning, adopted in , designated "Z1" areas residential areas designed for elites and "Z3" a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics.
Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation. After the s peripheral lot regulation increased and infrastructure in the periphery improved, driving land prices up.
The poorest and the newcomers were now unable to purchase their lot and build their house, and were forced to look for a housing alternative. Favelas went back into the urban perimeter, occupying the small lots that had not yet been occupied by urbanization — alongside polluted rivers, railways, or between bridges.
More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school.
The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59, employees, including 8, physicians and 12, nurses. Automobiles are the main means to get into the city.
In March , more than 7 million vehicles were registered. The west, south and east parts are completed, and the north part, which will close the beltway, is due to CGH for domestic and regional flights.
Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport , serves private jets and light aircraft. The three airports together moved more than In the latest upgrade, twelve boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights.
The terminal area was expanded from Built in the s, it was designed to handle the increasing demand for flights, in the fastest growing city in the world.
Every day nearly In , over The airport handles private flights and air shuttles, including air taxi firms.
Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic Ocean and overseas. Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil.
The city has The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday together. It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company.
Bus transport government and private is composed of 17, buses including about trolley buses. Routes to 1, cities in five countries Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay are available.
It connects to all regional airports and a ride sharing automobile service to Santos. At least six people were arrested in the protests.
The second and third positions are of New York City and Tokyo. With helicopters  in and around 2, flights per day within the central area, the city is, according to The Guardian , turning into a "real life South-American episode of The Jetsons ".
Helicopters enable businessmen and workers to sharply reduce time spent moving around and commuting. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services.
His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge. His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" "Shanty of Fond Memories" — , wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building.
Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini. Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician.
In the late s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular. Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians. The group were known as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing.
Os Mutantes released five albums before lead singer Rita Lee departed in to join another group called Tutti Frutti.
Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the s. In , Tecnicolor , an album recorded in the early s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.
In the early s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor Elegant Outrage emerged. They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing.
A late punk and garage scene became strong in the s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession. Bands originating from this movement include Ira!
Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a revival of South Pacific. The city hosts several music halls.
The main ones are: The Sambadrome hosts musical presentations as well. Festivals as the Virada Cultural "Cultural Overnight" happen once a year and holds hundreds of attractions spread throughout the city.
They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed poetry and music for the catechism , creating the first written works from the area.
They also helped to register the Old Tupi language , lexicon and its grammar. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually.
Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal. Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian.
The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences.
The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy.
They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter.
In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged. After the military coup of , plays started focusing on Brazilian history Zumbi, Tiradentes.
Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship.
The Tropicalist movement began there. The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters , around 40 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons, and small alternatives companies venues.
The city has museums and art galleries. In , it became a history museum. Its headquarters is a s mansion. From to , 2.
The hostel hosted approximately 3, people on average, but occasionally reached 8, The hostel received the last immigrants in Located in one of the few remaining centenarian buildings, the museum occupies part of the former hostel.
Two restored wagons inhabit the museum. One dates from , while a second class passenger car dates from The museum records the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from to The animals are grouped according to their classification: The library specializes in zoology.
It has 73, works, of which 8, are books and 2, are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps. The most important collections cover Italian and French painting schools.
Its headquarters, opened in , were designed by Lina Bo Bardi. MASP organizes temporary exhibitions in special areas. Brazilian and international exhibitions of contemporary arts , photography , design and architecture take turn during the whole year.
It also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts and European tapestry. Located next to the Luz metro station, the building was projected by architect Ramos de Azevedo in It was constructed to house an Arts Lyceum.
A major exhibition on the bronze statues of French sculptor Auguste Rodin took place in There is also a permanent exhibition on the "Resistance" movement that took place during military dictatorship in the Republican period, including a reconstructed prison cell where political prisoners were kept.
Modern art, Native Brazilian art, and photographies are some of the topics of past thematic exhibitions. Museu da Imagem e do Som Image and Sound Museum preserves music, cinema, photography and graphical arts.
MIS has a collection of more than , images. MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals and photography and graphical arts exhibitions.
The museum is run by the Department of Artistic Heritage of the Legislative Assembly and has paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics and photographs, exploring the Brazilian contemporary art.
The museum shows the history of soccer with a special attention to the memories, emotions and cultural values promoted by the sport during the 20th and 21st centuries in Brazil.
The visit also includes fun and interactive activities, 16 rooms from the permanent collection, plus a temporary exposition.
Paulo and O Estado de S. In addition, Gazeta is located in Paulista Avenue. As in the rest of Brazil, football is the most popular sport.
The Arena Corinthians was built for the event and hosted six matches, including the opening. It was first held in , when the competitors ran about 8, metres 26, feet.
The event was removed from the season calendar. Volleyball, basketball, skateboard and tennis are other major sports.
Formula One is also one of the most popular sports in Brazil. The Grand Prix has been held there from the inaugural in until , — and continuously since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Paulistano brought into the union star players like Arthur Friedenreich and Araken Patuska. The jerseys of the new club were derived from the ones of Palmeiras, which were white and sported a black ring across the chest.
To the black-and-white of Palmeiras was added the red-and-white of Paulistano, thus, the ring became red, white and black. The team, coached by former Paulistano star player Rubens Salles , played its first match on 16 March , when it drew 0—0 against CA Ypiranga.
The side became in the same year runner up of the State Championship and won it in , losing only one match of 26 and scoring 92 goals in the process.
Internal arguments and turmoil led to financial problems. With these new additions, Tricolor became known as the Steam Roller , winning the Paulista championship five times, in , , , and The run of success of the s, came to an end in the early s, and the club only won two state championships in the new decade, in and In , the club beat Palmeiras 1—0 with a goal from Toninho Guerreiro in the final to capture another state title.
However, they failed to win another trophy until the reclaimed the Paulista Championship in In , manager Pepe led the club to its second Brazilian Championship title, defeating Guarani in a penalty shoot-out.
In , Dario Pereyra left the club, but in that year the Menudos team won its last title, another Paulista title. In , Santana won his first title after winning the Paulista championship.
After returning to Brazil, the club beat Palmeiras 2—1 to win its 18th state championship title. On this occasion they lost a penalty shoot-out to the Argentine side at the Morumbi stadium.
Between and , the club had fourteen managers. The single goal was scored by Mineiro in the first half of the match.
Muricy Ramalho was signed up as the new coach, having led Internacional to the runners-up position in the Brazilian Championship.
In his first tournament as a manager, Ramalho reached second place in the Paulista Championship, losing to Santos by one point.
However, they went on to win their fourth Campeonato Brasileiro trophy, becoming the first team to become national champions in the new league system format.
Manager Muricy Ramalho was the first manager to win three Brazilian titles in a row with the same team. Ricardo Gomes took over as manager.
In research conducted by Brazilian sports website GloboEsporte. The shorts and socks are all-white. The away strip consists of a red shirt with red, black and white vertical stripes, black shorts and socks.
The badge consists of a shield with a black rectangle in the upper section bearing the initials SPFC in white. Below the rectangle is a red, white and black triangle.
The badge also has five stars, two gold and three red ones. It was inaugurated in , with a maximum sitting capacity of , people, but now its maximum capacity is only 67, seats.
Its record attendance for a football match, set in , is , Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The game between these clubs is also known as "Majestoso", a name coined by Thomas Mazzoni.
The first "Majestoso" occurred on 25 May From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.